Just earlier than sundown close to Page, Arizona, a parade of humanity marched up the sandy, half-mile path towards Horseshoe Bend. They had come from all around the world. Some carried packing containers of McDonald’s Chicken McNuggets, others cradled chihuahuas and some males hid engagement rings of their pockets. But nearly everybody had one factor on the prepared: a cellphone to snap an image.
Horseshoe Bend is without doubt one of the American west’s most celebrated overlooks. From a sheer sandstone precipice just some miles exterior Grand Canyon nationwide park, guests get a fowl’s-eye view of the emerald Colorado river because it makes a U-turn 800ft under. Hundreds of miles from any massive metropolis, and nestled within the coronary heart of south-west canyon nation, Horseshoe Bend was as soon as as lonely because it was lovely.
The Horseshoe Bend overlook. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
“It was just a local place for family outings,” recollects Bill Diak, 73, who has lived in Page for 38 years and served three phrases as its mayor. “But with the invention of the cellphone, things changed overnight.”
Horseshoe Bend is what occurs when a patch of public land turns into #instagramfamous. Over the previous decade pictures have unfold like wildfire on social media, catching the 7,000 residents of Page and native land managers off guard.
According to Diak, visitation grew from a number of thousand annual guests traditionally to 100,000 in 2010 – the 12 months Instagram was launched. By 2015, an estimated 750,000 folks made the pilgrimage. This 12 months visitation is predicted to achieve 2 million.
A vacationer on the Horseshoe Bend overlook throughout sundown. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
The 1.Three-mile path to Horseshoe Bend. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
Visitation right here is predicted to achieve 2 million. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
Numbers used to peak in the summertime however vacationers now stream in all 12 months spherical – practically 5,000 a day. And fame has come with a darkish aspect. In May 2018, a Phoenix man fell to his demise when he slipped off the cliff edge. In 2010, a Greek vacationer died when a rock beneath him gave method, police stated, as he took pictures. Like the current demise of a pair taking images in Yosemite, the incidents have raised troubling questions on what occurs when nature goes viral.
“Social media is the number one driver,” stated Maschelle Zia, who manages Horseshoe Bend for the Glen Canyon nationwide recreation space. “People don’t come here for solitude. They are looking for the iconic photo.”
‘Our species is having the greatest impact’
Tourists on the Horseshoe Bend overlook throughout sundown. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
Across America, nationwide parks and public lands are dealing with a disaster of recognition. Technology, profitable advertising, and worldwide tourism have introduced a surge in visitation not like something seen earlier than. In 2016 and 2017, the nationwide parks noticed an unprecedented 330.9 million guests, the best ever recorded. That’s not far off the US inhabitants itself.
Backcountry trails are clogging up, mountain roads are thickening with site visitors, picturesque vistas are morphing into selfie-taking scrums. And within the course of, what’s most liked about them dangers being lost.
“The least-studied mammal in Yellowstone is the most abundant: humans,” says Dan Wenk, the previous superintendent of 1 essentially the most chronically overcrowded parks within the system. In Yellowstone, America’s oldest nationwide park, visitation has surged 40% since 2008, topping four million in 2017.
After 43 years within the park service, Wenk is anxious. “Our own species is having the greatest impact on the park and the quality of the experience is becoming a casualty.”
Over a interval of 4 months, from excessive summer season to late autumn, the Guardian dispatched writers throughout the American west to look at how overcrowding is enjoying out at floor degree. We found a brewing disaster: two mile-long “bison jams” in Yellowstone, fist-fights in parking heaps at Glacier, a small Colorado city overrun by tens of millions of tourists.
Moreover, we found folks wrestling with an existential query: what ought to a nationwide park be within the trendy age? Can parks embrace a vast variety of guests whereas retaining what made them, as the author Wallace Stegner as soon as put it, “the best idea we ever had”?
People, folks in every single place
Crowds at Old Faithful in Yellowstone. Photograph: NPS/Neal Herbert
In 1872, Yellowstone turned the primary nationwide park within the world. In 1904, the primary 12 months for which visitation figures can be found, 120,690 folks visited the nationwide parks, which by then included Mt Rainier, Sequoia and Yosemite. By the mid-century that quantity swelled to tens of tens of millions, as extra parks had been added to the system and vacation spot highway journeys turned synonymous with American holidays.
But right now the tempo of visitation has outstripped sources. Much of the National Park Service’s infrastructure dates again to the Mission 66, a $1bn initiative undertaken within the 1950s and 60s, and wasn’t constructed with trendy crowds in thoughts.
Environmental challenges are burgeoning – current analysis has found nationwide parks bear the disproportionate brunt of global warming – and years of damage and tear have seen park upkeep fall woefully behind. The present backlog of vital upgrades to roads, trails and buildings stands at greater than $11bn. Ryan Zinke’s try and sharply improve entry charges on the busiest parks to pay for repairs proved so unpopular it needed to be walked again in April.
Traffic congestion has develop into one of the crucial seen penalties of overcrowding and underfunding, with some areas seeing tens of hundreds of vehicles a day throughout peak months.
A time lapse video reveals summer season site visitors at Yellowstone. (NPS / Jacob W. Frank)
In Yosemite, regardless of a shuttle system, the park warns summer season guests to count on two- to three-hour delays getting into Yosemite Valley. In Yellowstone, epic bottlenecks are frequent. Famed for its grizzly bears, grey wolves and bison herds, the park is arguably “wilder” than it was 50 years in the past, because of conservation work. But this rewilding has meant animal sightings routinely trigger gridlock alongside its two-lane roads.
On a current August day in Hayden Valley, a “bison jam” stretched practically two miles lengthy. As the herd moved steadily throughout the highway, a scene of frantic commotion started to unfold. Travelers excitedly scrambled from their automobiles. Bison handed inside inches, even brushing up towards the vehicles. Some vacationers briefly deserted their automobiles within the hope of getting shut sufficient for a photograph.
Impatient motorists tooted their horns as park rangers tried to convey order. “My job is to manage people, not animals, and I try not to get upset,” stated one in uniform. “Most visitors just don’t know how to behave in a wild place.”
A Bison jam close to Madison Junction in Yellowstone. Photograph: NPS/Jacob W Frank
But the bison weren’t the one drama. In the Lamar Valley, a pack of wolves simply seen within the distance drew a swarm of automobiles right into a turnout. People poured out, leaving their vehicles parked cattywampus, blocking site visitors in each instructions.
Sometimes vacationers get extra of a memento than they bargained for. This summer season has seen a handful of tourists gored or kicked by bison and elk once they ventured too shut. Meanwhile, a video of a person taunting a bison went viral, and citations have been issued to troublemakers who illegally flew drones and tossed rocks and particles into Yellowstone’s delicate geothermal options, which dangers destroying them ceaselessly.
Wenk admits rangers really feel overwhelmed. “We’re exceeding the carrying capacity and because of it damage is being caused to park resources,” he says. There’s been a 90% improve in automobile accidents, a 60% bump in requires ambulance companies and a 130% rise in searches and rescues, in accordance with the park. And whereas visitation has swelled, staffing, due to finances limitations, has remained the identical.
A crowded boardwalk within the Lower Geyser Basin in Yellowstone. Photograph: NPS/Neal Herbert
Traffic woes aren’t confined to park roads. At Glacier nationwide park in Montana (annual visitation: Three.Three million), parking heaps, too, have seen tense standoffs.
The Logan Pass Visitor Center dates again to the Mission 66 period. Perched on the high of Going-to-the-Sun Road, a precarious mountain artery which makes an look within the opening scene of The Shining, the middle affords entry to 2 of Glacier’s hottest trails – and simply 231 parking spots.
“It’s a tough situation,” stated Gary Cassier, a customer from Kalispell, Montana, whose spouse was nonetheless circling of their automobile, considered one of many looking for a spot. Looking out over the alpine meadows and near-vertical slopes, he noticed: “Nobody wants to see a multilevel parking garage here.”
Sometimes the battle for a spot turns bodily.
“We get fistfights in the parking lot,” says Emlon Stanton, a customer service assistant. Some guests even attempt to declare a spot for his or her teams on foot. “People get out of their vehicle, jump into a space and stand there,” explains Stanton. “Then somebody tries to pull in and bumps ’em.”
Hikers stand within the full car parking zone at Logan Pass in Glacier nationwide park. Photograph: Kurt Wilson/The Missoulian
Stanton and different park employees attempt to stop such episodes by imposing “soft closures” on the lot – inserting site visitors cones throughout its entrance and telling guests to seek out parking on the subsequent pullout, three miles away, and take a shuttle again. These closures can occur three to 5 occasions a day.
“From a staff perspective, it’s hard,” says park spokeswoman Lauren Alley. “‘Service’ is in our name, and to tell people, over and over, all day long, ‘We’re full, you’ll have to wait’… it’s a real challenge.”
A stinking downside
The toilet at McConnel river entry level within the Gallatin nationwide forest sits amongst sagebrush alongside the Yellowstone river. Photograph: Eli Imadali/The Bozeman Daily Chronicle
It’s late summer season on the Yellowstone river, simply north of Gardiner, Montana. A gaggle of anglers stand round their boat trailer, sipping beers and rigging fly rods within the late-morning solar as they wait their flip to launch into the water.
This gravel boat ramp sees plenty of motion. But not far off, one thing stinks. It’s one thing everyone makes use of, and one thing that’s been a headache for forest officers these days: a rest room.
Dealing with human waste has develop into a herculean enterprise for parks, one that’s usually hidden from view. In Zion, two outhouses close to Angel’s Landing that had been described by one author as paying homage to “an open sewer” have to be emptied by helicopter at a value of $20,000 yearly. In Colorado, Rocky Mountain nationwide park churns by means of greater than 1,800 miles of bathroom paper a 12 months. Yellowstone spent $28,000 available sanitizer final summer season alone, in accordance with a park official.
As waste mounts, discovering somebody to care for it turns into tougher. The Custer Gallatin nationwide forest, which stretches from the city of West Yellowstone, Montana, to South Dakota, exemplifies this conundrum.
A person opens the toilet door. Photograph: Eli Imadali/The Bozeman Daily Chronicle
There are greater than 200 vault bogs throughout the Custer Gallatin, small rooms with a single pot over a big septic tank. Signs on the doorways remind customers to not throw trash in them as a result of it makes vault pumping extraordinarily troublesome.
In such distant locations, the price of servicing bogs has soared. In 2013, forest officers budgeted roughly $32,000 for bathroom pumping throughout the Custer and Gallatin nationwide forests (the 2 forests mixed in 2014). So far in 2018, it has price practically $80,000. And that’s solely the pumping in “priority locations”, explains Lauren Oswald, the recreation program supervisor for the Custer Gallatin.
Beyond the hefty price ticket, the logistics of discovering a non-public contractor to do the job have additionally develop into extra fraught, particularly as cities like Bozeman develop and building websites rent away the potential candidates. The rest room on the boat ramp is serviced by a company based mostly in Hardin, Montana – greater than 200 miles away.
Nearby Yellowstone has waste worries, too. Bethany Gassman, a park spokeswoman, says park employees pumped 248,889 gallons from its 153 vault bogs and different septic techniques in 2017, a 19% improve over 2016. Visitors additionally run by means of a median of 1,710 rest room paper rolls a day.
A forest service path crew heads into the Lee Metcalf wilderness space in Montana. Photograph: Rachel Leathe/The Bozeman Daily Chronicle
The path crew was setting off on an eight-day backpacking journey to restore trails and bridges. Photograph: Rachel Leathe/The Bozeman Daily Chronicle
Forest employees now have to take care of an disagreeable job: selecting up rubbish and burying excrement. Photograph: Rachel Leathe/The Guardian/the Bozeman Daily Chronicle
The downside of managing human waste extends to the backcountry – areas removed from roads and improvement and accessible solely by trails. Forest employees have seen a rise in improperly managed excrement – unburied poop – in in style wilderness areas and unofficial campsites. The downside, Oswald says, is that some folks don’t appear to care how they go away the panorama as soon as they’re performed with it.
Forest staffers are sometimes confronted with the unenviable job of coping with what slob campers go away behind. It’s the sort of work that sanitation employees are employed for in main cities, not what you’d count on among the many wooded peaks and meadowed valleys of Montana.
“They pick up all garbage, whether it’s toilet paper or diapers or beer bottles,” Oswald says of the cleanup missions. “And generally if they come upon human waste, they try to deal with it by burying it at an appropriate depth.”
Nature by means of a display screen
Tourists at Yosemite nationwide park. Photograph: Gabrielle Cannon for the Guardian
Once parks had been the final word place to disconnect from the fashionable world. But right now guests have recent expectations – and in accommodating these new calls for, some say parks are unwittingly driving the very habits that’s spoiling them.
On Yosemite’s expansive mountainsides, one redwood stands out among the many relaxation. It’s a bit bit taller, a bit bit too uniform. A metallic shimmer glints within the solar from beneath its branches, coloured inexperienced and brown to match its neighbors. But this camouflage masks its true function: coating the wilderness in wifi.
Why come to a nationwide park versus Disneyland? Because you get to confront pure wonders
This tree helps to usher in a brand new period in Yosemite. And it’s not alone. Grand Tetons, Mt Rainier, Yellowstone, and Zion are all being wired with web and cell service as a part of a plan to draw a brand new era of park-goers. In Yosemite there are six towers already constructed, with plans below method for near a dozen extra.
The speedy modernization of Yosemite (annual visitation four.Three million) is obvious at Base Camp Eatery, one of many park’s latest meals spots. Here, contact screens allow hungry hikers to order drinks and snacks and entry immediate details about park actions. There’s even a newly opened – and notably controversial – department of Starbucks.
Inside Basecamp Eatery at Yosemite, which has new hi-tech contact screens. Photograph: Jason Corning for the Guardian
“The ways people find out about – and visit – parks is changing,” Lena McDowall, the nationwide park service deputy director, instructed the Senate subcommittee on nationwide parks final 12 months. Many see assembly the wants of millennials as important to protecting parks politically related amid funding challenges and the uncertainty of local weather change.
But the transfer might come at a value. “Why come to a national park as opposed to Disneyland? Because you get to confront natural wonders,” says Jeff Ruch, the manager director of Peer, an environmental advocacy group that has spent years opposing National Park Service plans for increasing cell tower building. “But if you interpose electronic devices in our view, you miss that.”
Capturing the right image at Horseshoe Bend. Photograph: John Burcham for the Guardian
Technological transformation is having surprising penalties on the landscapes that encompass nationwide parks, too. In Utah, guests are arriving in outstanding numbers to admire its photogenic landscapes – turning Zion, Bryce Canyon and Arches into a few of the busiest within the nation.
But the growing squeeze has pushed many to hunt thrills elsewhere. Take Kanarraville Falls, simply an hour exterior southern Zion. Here guests traverse a slender, twisting canyon carved by means of pink-purple sandstone alongside a collection of makeshift ladders, lastly arriving at a lovely waterfall: a style of Zion’s magical slot canyons however with out the crowds. Or at the least it was once.
Social media has been blamed for ruining Kanarraville Falls, as soon as a hidden gem however now featured in numerous Instagram posts. Bottlenecks can again up for an hour or extra on the ladders, rescue groups are dispatched recurrently to retrieve injured hikers, and stream banks are eroding and plagued by trash.
Kanarraville Falls hikers climb a collection of ladders, the place main bottlenecks can kind. Photograph: Steve Griffin/The Salt Lake Tribune
For the close by city of Kanarraville (inhabitants 378), the scenario has develop into untenable. Visitors, who routinely double the city’s inhabitants, are tramping by means of a watershed the city faucets for ingesting water. “The environment can’t handle that many people walking in and out of there,” says Tyler Allred, a city council member. “It needs a chance to recover.”
Kanarraville leaders are doing what they’ll: the city now costs a $9-per-head charge for hikers, because of an association with the state and federal officers.
It’s an experiment that might be replicated elsewhere. But up to now the charge hasn’t performed a lot to gradual day by day site visitors, in accordance with Allred. Annual visitation final 12 months was estimated at between 40,000 and 60,000. The subsequent step could also be to impose a day by day restrict on guests.
The bother for cities
Cars sit in site visitors in Estes Park, Colorado. Photograph: Helen H Richardson/The Denver Post
Kanarraville isn’t the one city the place tourism is taking a toll. Moab, exterior Arches, has develop into a byword for congestion. In California, locals bemoan the Airbnb-ification of Joshua Tree – an artsy, remoted desert group now overrun by out-of-towners keen on drones and late-night events.
In Estes Park, simply exterior the doorway to Rocky Mountain nationwide park, the issues have develop into particularly acute. It’s solely 90 minutes from the fast-growing metropolis of Denver, and urbanites flock right here in droves for the alpine tundra and hovering, snow-capped mountains.
In the summer season months, Estes balloons from its winter inhabitants of about 7,000 to a barely contained mass of as many as Three million folks who stream by means of downtown in the hunt for themed T-shirts, Native American trinkets, and a brew pub libation.
The in style city is overrun with vacationers in the summertime who come to go to and discover shut close by Rocky Mountain nationwide park. Photograph: Helen H Richardson/The Denver Post
For 82-year-old Paula Steige, the crush is nearly insufferable. Traffic makes getting round downtown a logistical ordeal and options supplied by the city – together with free shuttle buses – provide solely minor reduction.
“Oftentimes it seems we are in crisis mode, just trying to figure out how to get around. It’s especially bad for people trying to get to and from the park,” Steige stated. “And there just doesn’t seem to be a solution to all the overcrowding.”
‘Oftentimes it seems we are in crisis mode,’ says a neighborhood resident describing the crowds. Photograph: Helen H Richardson/The Denver Post
Steige can’t be part of these longtime residents who escape to different locales throughout the summer season as a result of she owns and operates the Macdonald Book Shop, began by her grandparents in 1908. She additionally is aware of that, like different store homeowners, she owes her livelihood to the close by nationwide park.
“The park is, of course, the reason the whole town thrives,” she stated. “The park is the reason the town does well or it goes badly.”
Estes Park, too, has a well-known hyperlink to The Shining: it’s home to the Stanley lodge, the distant institution that impressed the horror basic. Stephen King spent an evening right here in 1974. The Stanley now pulls in practically 400,000 annual guests, from ghost hunters attending excursions and seances to horror followers hoping to remain in King’s room. The overcrowding galled one current Stanley customer. “We went for a seance but so many tourists were crowding around, we couldn’t hear anything,” stated the person, who was visiting from Minnesota.
An overlook alongside Trail Ridge Road, the stretch of freeway that traverses Rocky Mountain nationwide park from Estes Park. Photograph: Helen H Richardson/The Denver Post
Police exercise in Estes Park is ticking up, too. Police say calls earlier this 12 months jumped practically 23% over the identical interval in 2017. The park has additionally seen a dramatic rise in drug citations and arrests, fueled largely by a misunderstanding of Colorado’s drug legal guidelines, park rangers say. Pot is authorized in Colorado and due to this fact the city of Estes Park, however not on the nationwide park itself, which is on federal property and the place the state’s pot legal guidelines don’t apply.
“We see a lot more flagrant violations of pot use as well as driving under the influence by people who don’t know or don’t care about the law,” says Kyle Patterson, a park spokeswoman. “I think all of that comes from the fact we are rapidly transforming into an urban park.”
Can something be performed?
Redwoods bushes in Muir Woods. Photograph: Talia Herman for the Guardian
While Wallace Stegner’s notion that parks are “America’s best idea” has develop into synonymous with the nation’s love for them, there’s a bit extra to his well-known 1983 line. The Pulitzer prize winner went on to explain the parks as a mirror for America’s nationwide character: “They reflect us at our best rather than our worst.”
Considering the issues besetting them, his sentiment now appears open to query.
Back in Yellowstone, useful resource specialists say the park is racing headlong towards a actuality some may thought-about sacrilege: limits on folks. One high park service official, who didn’t need to be recognized, stated day by day limits on site visitors getting into Yellowstone, which might be achieved by means of a reservation system, was lengthy overdue.
On the foggy coast of northern California, one spot has already taken the plunge. Muir Woods – named for John Muir, a famend conservationist and one of many earliest advocates for nationwide parks – is home to historical groves of towering redwoods. The forest is tiny by park requirements – simply 560 acres – but greater than 1,000,000 come every year to expertise its majestic calm.
Hundreds of parked vehicles as soon as choked the slender highway main towards the doorway, threatening the native watershed and wildlife, inflicting complications for close by residents, and creating harmful conditions for drivers and pedestrians strolling on the roadside.
Brandon Martin of Ace Parking checks reservations as a part of the brand new system at Muir Woods. Photograph: Talia Herman for the Guardian
That’s why, at the start of this 12 months, it turned the primary to introduce a brand new parking reservation system that requires all guests to buy their spots earlier than arriving. Street parking has been banned – and the variety of parking spots has been lowered by roughly 70%.
While officers say it’s too early to inform, estimates present that the reservation system will cut back annual numbers by about 200,000. Park representatives say they hope it’s going to curb crowding by serving to folks plan their journeys for much less busy time slots. So far, it appears to be working.
On a drizzling midweek afternoon, nearing the top of summer season, each Muir Woods parking heaps had been full. Near the doorway, the giggle and chatter of excited kids mingled with the sounds of waterfalls and fowl calls. Stroller wheels thudded rhythmically alongside the planked wood boardwalk, echoing by means of the grove. But a number of paces deeper the throngs thinned, and guests may discover a semblance of solitude among the many historical bushes.
“Even with a lot of people here there are little pockets of silence you can find,” stated Meghan Grady, who lives in close by San Francisco. “We sat and shut our eyes for a little bit just to listen.”
A baby performs in Muir Woods. Photograph: Talia Herman for the Guardian
A pair pose for a selfie. Photograph: Talia Herman for the Guardian
Visitors say the brand new system has introduced again a way of calm. Photograph: Talia Herman for the Guardian
It is experiences like these that park officers hope to guard. If they’re profitable, others might observe go well with. Parks together with Zion, Arches and Acadia are all urgently contemplating reservation-only techniques.
But as officers weigh up large-scale adjustments, which may take years to analysis and implement, others level to habits adjustments that may be made proper now. For occasion, a rising cohort of photographers, social media influencers and conservationists is pushing again on geotagging – utilizing GPS to share the exact location during which a photograph was taken. Leave No Trace, a nationwide group selling out of doors ethics, helps to spearhead the motion. In June it launched new steering on utilizing social media responsibly in nature. Dana Watts, the manager director, says the transfer was the results of suggestions from land administration businesses, the park service, the Bureau of Land administration and the general public.
Avoid geotagging particular areas, she advises, and consider carefully earlier than posting a selfie with wildlife. “Everyone wants to capture that picture, but people tend to get way too close,” she says. “If you are posting that, you are encouraging others to do the same.”
“The biggest thing we are asking people to do is stop and think,” she provides.
‘It’s simply going to continue to grow’
Shelby from Phoenix, Arizona, sits ready for the dawn. Photograph: John Burcham
At Horseshoe Bend, the Instagram crowds aren’t going anyplace quickly. Beginning in April 2019, town of Page will begin charging a $10-per-car entrance charge that can go on to pay for administration of the realm. But Zia, the Glen Canyon nationwide leisure supervisor, expects demand to steadily improve anyway. “Between 2015 and 2017, visitation doubled,” she stated. “I think it is just going to keep growing.”
In the meantime, managers are doing what they’ll to enhance security and defend the panorama. A metallic railing now cuts throughout the cliff’s edge to forestall folks from tumbling off. Vault bogs had been added two years in the past. What was as soon as a 100-sq-ft filth car parking zone has been expanded this 12 months to carry as much as 300 vehicles.
A railing has been put in on the lookout level after a number of folks fell from the sting. Photograph: John Burcham/John Burcham for the Guardian
On a November night, folks lined as much as watch the sky flip from orange to scorching pink because the solar descended. Jenny Caiazzo, 24, was visiting from Denver, touring south-west nationwide parks along with her pal. “Now that I’m here, I see it’s even more beautiful than the pictures.”
Visitors admired the view from the rim. “It’s breathtaking,” stated Brett Rycen, a customer from Australia on a coast-to-coast tour along with his spouse and daughter. “We’ve been Snapchatting a lot. We want our friends to know what we are experiencing.”
Nearby, Tristan Fabic and Cecille Lim from Los Angeles had simply gotten engaged. “This is the place where I wanted to propose,” stated Fabic. “I saw it on Instagram and thought it would be really cool.”
Reporting: Charlotte Simmonds in Oakland, California; Annette McGivney in Horseshoe Bend, Arizona; Todd Wilkinson in Yellowstone nationwide park, Wyoming; Patrick Reilly in Glacier nationwide park, Montana; Brian Maffly in Salt Lake City, Utah; Gabrielle Canon in Yosemite nationwide park and Muir Woods nationwide monument, California; Michael Wright in Gardiner, Montana; and Monte Whaley in Estes Park, Colorado